Hepatitis A is a liver disease caused by hepatitis A virus that can lead to mild to severe illness. The hepatitis A virus (HAV) is spread through direct contact with an infectious person or through ingestion of contaminated food and water. Most patients recover fully from hepatitis A with a lifelong immunity. However, a small number of people with hepatitis A could succumb to the disease.
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Rise of hepatitis A infection is linked with poor sanitation & hygiene and lack of safe water. Hepatitis A occurs periodically and in epidemics globally, with a propensity for cyclic reappearances. The hepatitis A virus is one of the common reasons for foodborne infection. An effective and safe vaccine is available to prevent hepatitis A. Safe water supply, food safety, improved sanitation, and hand washing could also be effective ways to combat hepatitis A.
According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, hepatitis A is a vaccine-preventable, communicable disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). Antibodies produced in response to hepatitis A infection last through life and protect against recurrence of infection. The best way to prevent hepatitis A is through vaccination. Vaccines available in market are Havrix, Vaqta, and Twinrix.
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Vaccination is recommended for all children aged 12 months or older, travelers to locations with increased hepatitis A infection, people who inject illegal drugs, those with a blood clotting problem, and anyone with long-term liver disease. Hepatitis A vaccine is given in two doses, six months apart. The vaccine also comes in a combination form, containing both hepatitis A and B vaccine, which can be given to persons 18 years or older. This form is given as three doses, over a period of six months or as three doses over one month and a booster dose at 12 months. A dose called immune globulin (IG) can be considered an addition to hepatitis A vaccine for adults, persons with compromised immunity, and persons with chronic liver disease or other chronic medical conditions who are traveling within two weeks.
Based on distribution channel, the global hepatitis A vaccines market can be segmented into hospitals, clinics, and organizations associated with government vaccinations programs. Rise in number of hepatitis A cases is forcing governments and health care organizations to spread awareness about the disease. This drives the global hepatitis A vaccines market. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in 2015, a total of 1,390 cases of hepatitis A were reported from 50 states in the U.S. The overall incidence rate in 2015 was 0.4 cases per 100,000 population. Actual acute cases are estimated to be 1.96 times the number of reported cases in any year.
The global hepatitis A vaccines market can be segmented into five major regions: North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. Asia Pacific is projected to reflect a high CAGR due to rise in pediatric population and increase in awareness about vaccination. Continuous efforts by market players and national organizations to promote hepatitis A vaccines is likely to drive the market in the developed regions. According to the WHO, in developing countries with poor sanitary conditions and hygienic practices, around 90.0% children are infected with the hepatitis A virus before the age of 10 years. Government vaccination programs in developing countries propel the global hepatitis A vaccines market. Rise in awareness about hepatitis is also one of the key factors augmenting the market in developing countries.
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Key players in the global hepatitis A vaccines market include GlaxoSmithKline and Merck & Co., Inc.