SNP or single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyping is a process to analyze and screen the genetic variations of SNPs between members of species. It is an upcoming area of interest for researchers for genomics and life science studies.
SNP genotyping is the measurement of genetic variations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between members of a species. It is a form of genotyping, which is the measurement of more general genetic variation. SNPs are one of the most common types of genetic variation. An SNP is a single base-pair mutation at a specific locus, usually consisting of two alleles (where the rare allele frequency is > 1%). SNPs are found to be involved in the etiology of many human diseases and are becoming of particular interest in pharmacogenetics. Because SNPs are conserved during evolution, they have been proposed as markers for use in quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and in association studies in place of microsatellites. The use of SNPs is being extended in the HapMap project, which aims to provide the minimal set of SNPs needed to genotype the human genome. SNPs can also provide a genetic fingerprint for use in identity testing. The increase of interest in SNPs has been reflected by the furious development of a diverse range of SNP genotyping methods.
In high-density oligonucleotide SNP arrays, hundreds of thousands of probes are arrayed on a small chip, allowing for many SNPs to be interrogated simultaneously. Because SNP alleles only differ in one nucleotide and because it is difficult to achieve optimal hybridization conditions for all probes on the array, the target DNA has the potential to hybridize to mismatched probes. This is addressed somewhat by using several redundant probes to interrogate each SNP. Probes are designed to have the SNP site in several different locations as well as containing mismatches to the SNP allele. By comparing the differential amount of hybridization of the target DNA to each of these redundant probes, it is possible to determine specific homozygous and heterozygous alleles.
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