A pancake (or hotcake, griddlecake, or flapjack, not to be confused with oatmeal flapjacks) is a flat cake, often thin and round, made from a starch-based batter, which may contain eggs, milk, and butter, and cooked hot like a surface Frying pan or frying pan, often with oil or butter. Archaeological evidence suggests that pancakes were likely the earliest and most widely used grain food eaten in prehistoric societies.
The shape and structure of the pancake varies worldwide. In England, pancakes are often unleavened and resemble a crepe. In North America, a leavening agent (typically baking soda) is used to make a thick, fluffy pancake. A crepe is a thin Breton pancake of French origin that is cooked on one or both sides in a special pan or a crepe maker to create a patchy network of fine bubbles. A well-known variant from Southeast Europe is a palačinke, a thin, moist pancake that is fried on both sides and filled with jam, cream cheese, chocolate or ground walnuts. But many other fillings - sweet or savory - can also be used.
When potatoes are used as the main ingredient of the batter, a potato pancake is created. Commercial pancake mixes are available in some countries. When buttermilk is used instead of or in addition to milk, the pancake develops a tart taste and is known as the buttermilk pancake, which is common in Scotland and the United States. Buckwheat flour can be used in a pancake batter, creating a type of buckwheat pancake that includes blini, kaletez, ploye, and memil-buchimgae.