Haemophilus influenzae – a small Gram negative coccobacillus isolated primarily from the human respiratory tract. Initially, patients with invasive and serious H influenzae infections are best treated with an intravenous third-generation cephalosporin until antibiotic sensitivities become available. It is important to monitor the resistance rates (in the hospital or the region) of H influenzae to the different antibiotics to guide empiric antimicrobial choices while awaiting susceptibility results.
Many infections caused by nontypeable H. influenzae, include, otitis media in children and exacerbations in adults with COPD, which can be treated with oral antimicrobial agents. Oral agents active against nontypeable strains include amoxicillin-clavulanate, fluoroquinolones, macrolides (e.g., azithromycin, clarithromycin), and various extended spectrum cephalosporins (e.g., cefixime, cefpodoxime, loracarbef, cefuroxime).
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Nontypeable H. influenzae is the most common cause of exacerbations of COPD in adults. Approximately, 24 million Americans have COPD and experience intermittent exacerbations, many caused by bacterial infection. Thus, H. influenzae infections are highly prevalent among adults with COPD.
There are two major drugs class which are effective in haemophilus influenzae infection treatment namely, antibiotics and glucocorticoids. In antibiotics, penicillin are useful in management of mucosal infections caused by nonencapsulated H influenzae. However, up to 25%-50% of isolates produce beta-lactamase so are resistant to this class of drugs.
Third-generation cephalosporins are highly effective in H influenzae infections. Meropenem or ampicillin and chloramphenicol are alternative regimens. Some of the common drugs available in the market under this drug class category are Azithromycin (Zithromax), Ceftriaxone (Rocephin), Cefuroxime (Ceftin, Zinacef), Ampicillin (Marcillin, Omnipen, Polycillin, Principen), Amoxicillin (Trimox, Amoxil, Trimox), Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (Augmentin), Chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin), Erythromycin and sulfisoxazole (Eryzole, Pediazole), Meropenem (Merrem IV), and Rifampin (Rifadin).
Glucocorticoids is the other drug class used for the treatment of H influenza. These agents are used as adjunctive therapy in H influenza meningitis for the anti-inflammatory effects and prevention of sensorineural deafness.
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The common drugs available in this class for the treatment of H influenza infection is Dexamethasone (Decadron, Baldex). However, adverse effects of this drug class are hyperglycemia, hypertension, weight loss, GI bleeding or perforation synthesis, cerebral palsy, adrenal suppression, and death. Most of the adverse effects of corticosteroids are dose-dependent or duration-dependent.
The global market for Haemophilus Influenzae Infection Treatment market can be segmented on basis of treatment and geography:
- Segmentation by Treatment
On the basis of regional presence, global haemophilus influenzae infection treatment market can be segmented into five key regions viz. North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Middle East & Africa.
North America and Europe are together expected to dominate the global haemophilus influenzae infection treatment market due to upcoming approvals, more number of research and awareness. However, APAC is expected to witness delayed growth due to late introduction of products in the market.
There are some companies which are in to development and commercialization of products in this field, such as Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Merck & Co., Inc etc.
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