E. coli have the property to incorporate foreign DNA into it, and hence are termed as competent cells. Competent cells are bacterial cells which accept the extra chromosomal DNA and plasmid. The walls of competent cells are made permeable by the use of calcium chloride and heat shock. This process involves cooling the bacteria initially with calcium chloride at 0 degree Celsius and then immediately heating at 47 degree Celsius for approximately 90 seconds. The calcium chloride treatment neutralizes the repulsive action phospholipid heads in the membrane and the heat process causes thermal gradient which creates a space helping the DNA to enter the competent cells. The cells in the early stage of growth are more competent than those in later stage of growth. Competent cells are used in the process of transformation. These react to changes in the environment and uptake the DNA released by bacterial cells, thereby inducing natural transformation process.
The global Competent Cells Market is driven by high demand for products derived for recombinant DNA technology. Advancements in molecular engineering, aggressive research and development on therapeutic products in treating various types of diseases, rise in government investment in research activities, and favorable reimbursement and regulatory scenario drive the market. However, high cost of research and development is a major restrain of the global competent cells market in emerging economies.
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The global competent cells market can be segmented based on product type, application, end-user, and region. In terms of product type, the global market can be classified into chemically competent cells and electrocompetent cells. Based on application, the global competent cells market can be categorized into cloning, protein expression, and others. The cloning segment can be divided into toxic/unstable DNA cloning sub cloning and routine cloning, phage display library construction, and high throughput cloning, and others (mutagenesis, large plasmid transformation, single strand DNA production, and lent viral vector production). In terms of end-user, the global market can be classified into contract research organizations, contract manufacturing organizations, pharmaceutical & biotechnology companies, and academic and research institutes.
Based on region, the global competent cells market can be segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America and Middle East & Africa. North America and Europe are the major markets in terms of revenue due to extensive research activities in recombinant therapy due to innovation in technology and rise in commercial need for recombinant products. Asia Pacific and Latin America are emerging competent cells market . Increase in research activities, investment by key players for manufacturing and research activities in countries such as India is likely to drive the competent cells market in Asia Pacific. Increase in government investment in research and development in countries in Latin America and Middle East & Africa is projected to accelerate the use of competent cells during the forecast period.