Past Perfect

✅Biz Past Perfect zamoni o’tgan zamonda biror vaqtdan oldin tugagan ish harakatlar uchun ishlatamiz. Past Perfect zamonini egagadan so’ng had va to’gri fellarga ed noto’g’ri fe’llarni (past participle) shaklini ishlatamiz Ega +had +V+ed(P.P)

Positive Form
🔹S+had+P.P
▪️I had worked, She had worked
Negative Form
🔹Subject+had+P.P
▪️I had not worked She had not worked
Question Form
🔹Had+Subject+P.P
Had I worked? Had she worked?

✳️Past Perfect Ishlatilishi✳️
✅1️⃣.O’tgan zamonda biror ish harakat yoki biror vaqtdan oldin tugagan ish harakat uchun biz Past Perfect ishlatamiz
▪️I had finished dinner by six o’clock.- Men soat 6 gacha tushlikni tugatgandim.
❗️Izoh: Tepada qoidada aytilgandek biror vaqtdan yoki biror ish-harakatdan oldin sodir bo’lgan ish harakat uchun ishlatamiz. Buyerda tushlikni nechida tugatdi bilmaymiz, lekin biz 6 dan oldin ya’ni 6 gacha tugatganini bilamiz.. O’tgan zamonda biror ish harakat bo’ladi undan oldingi ish-harakatni Past Perfectni ishlatamiz. Yana bir misolda ko’rib chiqamiz
▪️The train left at 9am. We arrived at 9.15am. When we arrived, the train had left.
Poyezd soat 9 da jo’nab ke’tti. Biz 9:15 yetib keldik(vokzalga). Qachonki biz kelganimizda, Poyez ketib bo’lgandi.
🔹Nega biz buyerda Past Perfect ishlatdik? Chunki poyez ketib bo’lishi biz kelishimizdan oldin sodir bo’lgandi, Biz bir ish-harakatdan oldinro boshqa ish-harakat sodir bo’lganiga urg’u berish uchun Past Perfect ishlatamiz. Bunda Perfectdagi ish-harakat Past Simpe dagidan oldin tugagan bo’ladi.. Biz 9:15 keldik, poyezd 9:00 jonat ketgandi…
🔸O’tgan zamondagi vaqt ko’rsatkichlari bunaqa berlishi mumkin:
🔻a) by 5 o’clock soat beshgacha, by Friday Jumagacha, by the 20th of December 20-dekabrgacha, by the end of the year yilning oxirigacha, by that time o‘sha vaqtgacha va boshqa vaqt ko‘rsatkichlari bilan.
🔻b)When+Past Simple ish harakat bilan
▪️When I arrived at the party, Jahon had already gone home.


2️⃣.Present Perfectni o’tgan zamondagi ekvavalenti sifatida ishlatiladi.
🔻a)He had fixed the radio. It was working/it worked( action- had fixed- happened in the past. Result It was working/it worked- was also in the past
🔻b) He has fixed the radio. It is working/it works( action- had fixed- happened in the past. Result It is working/it works- is visible in the present
❗️Izoh:U radioni sozladi. Radio ishlayapti( ish-harakat o’tgan zamonda sodir, Natijasi o’tgan zamonda ko’rnib turibdi radio yana ishlayabdi.
🔹Present Perfectda hozirda natijasi ko’rnib turgan holatlar uchun ishlatardik. Shu natijasi o’tgan zamonda ko’rnib turgan holatlar uchun Past Perfect ishlatarkanmiz.
Bitta farqi Present Perfectni natijasi hozir ko’rnib turadi Past Perfectniki o’tgan zamonda
3️⃣.O’tgan zamonda ketma-ket so’dir bo’lgan ish-harakatlarni tartib bilan aytsak Past Simple foydalanamiz. Agarda biz tartibni buzib bitta ish harakatdan kegin undan oldin sodir bolgan ish-harakatni aytsak Past Perfectni ishlatamiz…
▪️He came home late in the evening. He had visited the Museum of Fine Arts and had been to the concert. He had supper, read the newspaper and feeling tired, went to bed.
▪️U uyga kechqurun kech keldi. U San‘at muzeyiga bordi va konsertda bo‘lgan edi. U kechki ovqatini yedi, gazetani o‘qidi va charchagani uchun joyiga yotdi.
❗️Izoh: Misoldagi came, had supper, read, went to bed harakatlari oldinma- ketin sodir bo‘ladi, had visited va had been harakatlari esa ulardan oldin sodir bo‘lgan. Ya’ni u uyga keldi va uyga kelgan gapidan keyingi ish-harakat( muzeyga borgani va konsertda bo’lgani) uyga kelishidan oldin sodir bo’lgandi. Undan keying gapalar esa ketma-ket sodir bo’lgan.

💡Bilib qo'ygan yaxshi💡
✳️Ba’zi payt ravishlari va Past Perfectni ishlatilishi.✳️
🔹After(dan keyin) bilan kelgan gap Past Perfectda bo’ladi.
▪️We went out after It had stopped raining-Yomg’ir tingandan kegin, ko’chaga chiqdik
❗️Izoh: Buyerda birinchi yomgir tinmoqda undan keyingini chiqishmoqda
Eslatma bunaqa gaplarda After qo’langan qismda past simple ishlatsa bo’ladi. Past Perfect ishlatilganda bitta ish-harakat boshqasidan oldin bo’lganni takidlamoqchi bo’lnadi. Agarda takidlash zarurati bo’lmasa Past simple ishlatsa bo’ladi. Lekin men sizlarga dtm testlarida Past Perfect olishlaringizni maslahat beraman.
🔹Before bilan boshlangan gapda Before bor qism Past simpleda, ikkinchi qismni Past Perfectda bo’ladi.
▪️I had finished my work before he returned.- U kelishidan oldin, men ishlarimni bitirdim
❗️Izoh: U masalan 5da kelgan bo’lsa men 5 gacha ishlarimni bitirganman.
Buyerda ham tepadagi qoida, takidlash zarurati bo’lmasa Past simple ishlatsa bo’ladi
🔹No sooner ravishi bilan kelgan gapda bosh gapda Past Perfect ergash gapda Past simple ishlatiladi.
🔹No sooner had he arrived, than he fell ill. - U yetib kelar-kelmas kasal bo‘lib qoldi.

❗️Izoh: No soonerda gap tuzilishi sal boshqacha boladi: No sooner + had+Ega+P.P

Yana bir maslahat dtm teslarni yechishada gap otgan zamonda ketayotgan bo’lsa va Gapda By the time yoki By deb biror vaqt yoki ish-harakat berilgan bo’lsa Past Perfectni tanlang.

👨‍💻Telegram kanalimiz: 👩‍💻https://t.me/joinchat/AAAAAETQ9GefEZH9vGg3xw

Author; Nomozov Boysoat