Antidotes are medicines, chelating drugs, or pharmaceutical ingredients that neutralize the effect of poison or another drug. Paracetamol poisoning is the major concern all over the world as it is the most common drug taken in intentional overdose. Opioid poisoning, cyanide poisoning, benzodiazepine poisoning and other toxins can be neutralized using antidotes. Different types of antidotes are available to neutralize the effect of one particular drug and to reduce the toxicity of many drugs. There are antidotes that are 100% effective, while some can cause fatalities. Examples of antidotes are pralidoxime for poisoning by anti-cholinesterase nerve agents, naloxone for opioid overdose, methylene blue for drug-induced methemoglobinemia, flumazenil for benzodiazepine overdose, dimercaprol for arsenic, gold, or inorganic mercury poisoning, digoxin immune fab for digoxin toxicity, atropine for organophosphates and carbamates, activated charcoal for most poisons, and acetylcysteine for acetaminophen poisoning.
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According to the World Health Organization (WHO), over 5 million people across the world suffer from snake bites each year, and nearly 100,000 of these develop severe sequela. Mortality rate in developing countries in Asia Pacific such as India was approximately 30,000, whereas in developed countries in North America such as the U.S. it was 50,000 cases of bites, of which 7,000 were by venomous snakes.
Increase in awareness and studies regarding the identification of toxins of venomous bites by companies and governments to increase the knowledge of antidotes and drugs is projected to drive the global antidotes market during the forecast period. Rise in prevalence of the medical conditions associated with antidotes such as trichotillomania, toxoplasmosis prophylaxis, smoking cessation, reversal of sedation, reversal of opioid sedation, pneumocystis pneumonia prophylaxis, and opioid overdose drives demand for antidotes. However, rise in prices of anti-venoms is anticipated to restrain the global antidotes market during the forecast period.
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The global antidotes market can be segmented based on antidote type, dosage form, mode of action, and region. In terms of antidote type, the market can be categorized into chemical antidotes, physical antidotes, and pharmacological antidotes. Based on dosage form, the global antidotes market can be bifurcated into oral and injectable. Oral dosage can be divided into capsules or tablets, and syrup. Based on mode of action, the market can be segmented into poison, drug, and toxin.
Geographically, the global antidotes market can be segmented into Latin America, Asia Pacific, Europe, North America, and Middle East & Africa. North America held the largest market share in 2016, due to increase in research and development on antidotes in the region. Europe held the second largest market share in 2016, due to technological advancements in antidotes. The market in Asia Pacific is anticipated to grow at a rapid pace during the forecast period owing to increase in prevalence of medical conditions associated with antidotes such as nerve agent poisoning, methotrexate rescue, methanol poisoning, mercury poisoning, lead poisoning, and gold poisoning. The market in Latin America and Middle East & Africa is anticipated to be driven by rise in government initiatives regarding antidotes.
Key players in the global antidotes market include ADAPT Pharma, Inc., Baxter International, Inc., Cumberland Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Meridian Medical Technologies, Inc., Graceway Pharmaceuticals, LLC, Luitpold Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Novartis AG, Protherics, Inc., ApoPharma USA, Inc., Apotex, Inc., and Spectrum Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
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