Theory: Command

You probably have heard of behavioral patterns by now. Behavioral patterns are concerned about the interaction of objects. While there are about 12 design patterns that belong to behavioral patterns, the command pattern takes a special place as it is used more often than other design patterns. The purpose of the command pattern is to decouple the logic between command and its consumers.

The formal definition of the command pattern is encapsulating all the data related to command in one object. Usually, this data consists of a set of methods, their parameters, and one or more objects to which these methods belong to. We call this object Receiver. So the important point about decoupling is if you had to change any of these values, you only have to change one class.

In its classic version, implementing the command pattern involves five steps. Let's see what they are.

The classic version

The classic version of the Command pattern has the following elements:

  • The Command interface usually declares just a single method for executing the command.
  • The ConcreteCommand is an operation with parameters that pass the call to the receiver; In the classic approach, a command only invokes one or more methods of a Receiver rather than perform business logic.
  • The Receiver knows how to perform the action.
  • The Invoker asks the command to carry out the request.
  • The Client creates a ConcreteCommand object and sets the Receiver.

Note that the interface Command is not necessarily an interface as a language's construct. It can be a simple or abstract class. The main thing is that it represents an abstract command that is inherited by concrete commands.

The following diagram illustrates all the elements of the pattern and their relations.

The Client creates an object of Receiver and a ConcreteCommand and sets up the Invoker to execute the command. Each type of ConcreteCommand (e.g. CreateFileCommand, RemoveFileCommand) has a set of fields which represent the params. A command calls one or more methods of the Receiver to execute concrete actions to change the state of the application.

You will be able to understand these concepts better with a real-world example.

Example of the command pattern

Suppose you are going to build a home automation system where you need to turn on and off a light. Here we have two commands which are quite similar. So we will create one interface as Command first. It will have only one method which is execute().

Then we will create two classes that will implement the Command interface. These concrete classes encapsulate data needed for the command. So you have to create concrete classes for each command. We will be creating two concrete classes as our application has two commands, Light On and Light Off.

First. LightOnCommand will implement the Command interface.

Next, LightOffCommand will implement the Command interface. LightOffCommand basically has the same code that LightOnCommand has.

We haven't created the Light class yet which is our Receiver. So next we are going to create it.

Sometimes learning design patterns with simple examples is difficult because these examples don't represent the complexity of real-world applications. For example, someone may think why do we create a separate Light class when only we need two methods and both of them can be implemented on the command classes itself. Well, in a real-world application, the Light class can be more complicated with more fields and methods in which command classes have nothing to do.

Next, we need to create the Invoker class. The invoker class decides how the commands are executed. For example, the invoker can keep a list of commands that need to be executed in a specific order. Please note that Invoker is just a general term we use to call this class which decides how commands are executed. You can name it as you want depending on the application you develop.

We will name the invoker class as Controller here.

Finally, our client or the main method will use the invoker to execute the command.

It's quite straightforward as to what happens here. Basically, there are three significant steps in the main method.

  1. Creating an object from the invoker class which is Controller in our application.
  2. Creating objects from commands that we are going to execute.
  3. Executing commands using invokers.

There could be other steps that are needed to support these three main steps. For example, this main() method has created a Light object because a Light object is needed to pass to create Command objects.

Additional options

The Command pattern can be used together with the following options:

  • adding commands to a queue to execute them later;
  • supporting undo/redo operations;
  • storing a history of commands;
  • serializing commands to store them on a disk;
  • assembling a set of commands into a single composite command known as macros.

These options are not essential to the pattern but are often used in practice.

Sometimes, a command performs all the work by itself instead of invoking the receiver object to do the action. This option is somewhat simpler and also used in practice.


Possible applications of this pattern include:

  • GUI buttons and menu items. In Swing programming, an Action is a command object. In addition to the ability to perform the desired command, an Action may have an associated icon, a keyboard shortcut, tooltip text, and so on.
  • Networking. It is possible to send whole command objects across the network to be executed on the other machines: for example, player actions in computer games.
  • Transactional behavior. Similar to undo, a database engine or software installer may keep a list of operations that have been or will be performed. Should one of them fail, all others can be reversed or discarded (this is usually called rollback).
  • Asynchronous method invocation. In multithreading programming, this pattern makes it possible to run commands asynchronously in the background of an application. In this case, the Invoker is running in the main thread and sends the requests to the Receiver which is running in a separate thread. The invoker will keep a queue of commands and send them to the receiver while it finishes running them.


The main advantage of the command pattern is that it decouples the object that invokes the operation from the one that knows how to perform it. Various modifications of this pattern can be used to keep a history of requests, implement the undo functionality and create macro commands. However, keep it in mind that your application can become more complicated because this pattern adds another layer of abstraction instead of simply invoking methods.