The Evolution of Antibody Patents

Introduction :

An antibody is a protein component of the immune system that circulates in the blood, recognizes foreign substances like bacteria and viruses, and neutralizes them. After exposure to a foreign substance, called an antigen, antibodies continue to circulate in the blood, providing protection against future exposures to that antigen.

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Antibodies are immunoglobulins, Y-shaped proteins that are produced by the immune system to help stop intruders from harming the body. When an interloper enters the body, the immune system springs into action. Antibodies find an antigen, stick to it, and recognize for the immune system the exact type of antigen so that an antibody can destroy it. Each antibody made for one and only one antigen, and it's fitted with special receptors that will only bind to that antigen.

Type of Antibody

·        IgG.

·        IgM.

·        IgA.

·        IgE.

·        IgD. .

·        Camelid antibodies.

Function of Antibody

The antibodies act sort of like the immune system's scouts. They find antigens, stick to them, and identify for the immune system the exact type of antigen so that it can be destroyed. Each antibody is made for one and only one antigen, and it's fitted with special receptors that will only bind to that antigen. For instance, a specific antibody is created to help destroy the chickenpox virus. Only that particular antibody will attack a chickenpox virus.

How Antibodies Fight Antigens

So what happens when an antigen tries to enter the body? When it does, the immune system is triggered. Chemical signals are sent to alert all the different parts of the immune system into action.

First, the virus is met by a type of cell called B cells. The B cells are responsible for creating antibodies to match the antigen. Remember, each type of antibody matches to only one antigen. After the B cells have created their antibodies, the antibodies stick to the virus, marking it for the next round of attack. T cells are then ordered to attack the antigen that the antibodies have marked for it.

After the antigen has been destroyed, the cleanup crew comes along. A wave of phagocytes, large cells that can consume foreign matter, eats the remains of the infection.

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