矿机荧光将在全球闪耀 这几国或将成首选

2021年6月18日,四川省有关部门正式下发通知,要求发电企业自查自纠,立即停止向虚拟货币“挖矿”项目供电,落实国家清理要求。

On June 18, 2021, the relevant departments of Sichuan Province formally issued a notice requiring power generation companies to conduct examination and immediately stop supplying power to crypto "mining" projects for the purpose of implementing national clean-up requirements.

6月19日,关停如期而至,随之而来的是比特币算力的持续下降。截至6月22日14时,BTC区块链浏览器显示,比特币全网算力为115.63 EH/s,较今年5月13日时的历史峰值181 EH/s下降超30%,大部分企业的算力增长率都在减少。

On June 19, the shutdown came as scheduled, followed by the continued decline in Bitcoin's computing power. As of 14:00 on June 22, the BTC blockchain browser showed that the computing power of Bitcoin's entire network was 115.63 EH/s, which was a drop of more than 30% from the historical peak of 181 EH/s on May 13 this year. The growth rate of computing power for most companies was decreasing.

可以预见,在强力的打击下,中国的比特币矿场与矿工数量将持续缩水,其算力已经失去在全球的领先地位;这或许也意味着,中国比特币矿业时代落幕,北美等海外比特币矿业就此开始崛起。

It is foreseeable that under this crackdown, the number of Bitcoin mines and miners in China will continue to shrink, and its computing power has lost its leading position in the world. This may also mean that the era of China’s Bitcoin mining is over, while the mining industry for overseas Bitcoin such as North America began to rise.

而针对矿业出海这一问题,头部矿机厂商比特大陆早于6月19日在成都举办了一场以“矿业出海”为主题的闭门定向邀请会议,旨在为国内矿工、矿场主出海提供便利条件。就目前情况来看,出海已然成为一种必然趋势。

In response to this problem, the leading mining machine manufacturer, Bitmain held a closed-door meeting in Chengdu in June 19, aiming to provide domestic miners and mine owners convenient conditions for oversea mining. Judging from the current situation, this has become an inevitable trend.

目前已关停的矿业基本上都在布局海外的路上。目前大型矿工与矿场的布局地点以美国、哈萨克斯坦、加拿大、俄罗斯四地为首。

The mines that have been shut down are basically expanding to overseas. At present, the locations of large-scale miners and mines are led by the United States, Kazakhstan, Canada, and Russia.

美国

U.S.

美国相对来说政治环境和监管更加友好,比如德州有支持加密资产的政客,肯塔基州也在通过政策引导吸引比特币矿工。不光如此,美国部分地区电力资源充沛且便宜,Crescent电力供应公司曾对美国各州比特币挖矿成本进行了统计,其中挖取BTC成本最低的前五个州为:路易斯安那州(挖一枚比特币成本3224美元)、爱达华州,华盛顿州,田纳西州,阿肯色州。据消息,莱比特矿池创始人已计划将设备搬往德克萨斯州和田纳西州,因此大体量矿工会把美国作为首选之地。

The United States is relatively more friendly to the political environment and supervision. For example, Texas has politicians who support crypto assets, and Kentucky is also adopting policy guidance to attract Bitcoin miners. In addition, power resources are abundant and cheap in some parts of the United States. Crescent has conducted statistics on the cost of Bitcoin mining in various states in the United States. The top five states with the lowest BTC mining cost are: Louisiana (mining a Bitcoin cost US$3,224), Idaho, Washington, Tennessee, Arkansas. According to sources, the founder of LTC mining pool has planned to move to Texas and Tennessee. This shows that most mining unions have chosen the United States as their first choice.

哈萨克斯坦

Kazakhstan

哈萨克斯坦,具有丰富的煤炭资源,其电力主要是火电,是公认的全球电力成本较低的地区之一。有数据显示,其每度电的成本在0.03美元(约2毛),有些地方的电力成本甚至可以降低至每度电1毛以下,非常具有竞争力,且中国和哈萨克斯坦之间的边界是开放的,集装箱可以免费进口。进口产品需缴纳12%的增值税,且无需支付额外的海关费用,这在独联体国家中是最便宜的,这或许是很多大矿厂的首选。但是,哈萨克斯坦的政策也在变动。哈萨克斯坦只允许开采有资产支持的加密货币;禁止开采“不安全”的加密货币,如比特币。

Kazakhstan is rich in coal resources and mainly thermal power. It is recognized as one of the regions with low electricity costs around the world. Data shows that the cost per kWh of electricity is US$0.03 (about 20 cents), and the cost of electricity in some places can even be reduced to less than 1 cent per kWh, which is very competitive. Furthermore, the border between China and Kazakhstan is open and containers can be imported for free. Imported products are subject to a 12% tax, and there is no additional customs fee. It is the cheapest among the CIS countries, and this may be the first choice for many large mines. However, Kazakhstan’s policy is changing as it only allows the mining of asset-backed cryptocurrencies. The mining of cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, is prohibited.

加拿大

Canada

加拿大在加密货币领域更鼓励支持创新,主要缘于自身经济体量和金融市场规模都远小于美国,因此同样是移民国家,加拿大的试错成本更低。此外,加拿大纬度更高,北极圈内的土地比美国更多,因此早在2018年就已吸引了不少中国矿场“走出去”。目前水电资源丰富的魁北克省、曼尼托巴省、不列颠哥伦比亚省、阿尔伯特省备受关注。

Canada encourages and supports the innovation of cryptocurrency, mainly because its economy and financial market are much smaller than the United States. Canada is also a country of immigration, and it has lower trial and error costs. In addition, Canada has a higher latitude and more land in the Arctic Circle than the United States. As a result, many Chinese mines have decided "go out" in 2018. At present, Quebec, Manitoba, British Columbia, and Alberta, which are rich in hydropower resources, have attracted much attention.

俄罗斯——埃基巴斯图兹(Ekibastuz)

Ekibastuz, Russia

埃基巴斯图兹是哈萨克斯坦北部靠近俄罗斯的一个城市,它夏季最热月份的温度很少超28°C。很多矿场会把温度控制在20度左右,因而埃基巴斯图兹的温度很适合矿机运作。在成本方面,俄罗斯能源成本低廉,虽然俄罗斯禁止用加密货币购买商品和服务,但从2021年起允许加密货币挖矿和交易,甚至军方也有相关的项目,因此俄罗斯或将成为下一个兵家必争之地。目前除了埃基巴斯图兹外,伊尔库茨克州、列宁格勒州、克拉斯诺亚尔斯克边疆区也受到了矿工们的关注。

Ekibastuz is a city in northern Kazakhstan close to Russia. The temperature during the hottest month of summer rarely exceeds 28°C. Many mines will control the temperature at about 20°C, so the temperature of Ekibastuz is very suitable for the operation of the mining machine. In terms of cost, Russia’s energy costs are low. Although Russia prohibits the use of cryptocurrency to purchase goods and services, it allows cryptocurrency mining and trading from 2021, and even the military has related projects. Therefore, Russia may become the next battleground for many strategists. At present, Irkutsk, Leningrad, and Krasnoyarsk territories have also received the attention of miners.

出海仍需考虑哪些因素?What are the factors to be considered?除了安全问题上,出海仍有需要因素需要考虑,大致可分为两方面:

In addition to safety issues, there are factors to be considered for oversea mining, which can be roughly divided into two aspects:

1)政策因素

1) Policy factors

一是电力价格。这是最主要的成本,电价越低,就越对矿工有吸引力。

One, the price of electricity. This is the most important cost. The lower the electricity price, the more attractive it is to miners.

二是温度。在气温偏低地区,就不用单独建立冷却装置了。在城市挖矿,就必须考虑散发出的巨大热量的困扰。

The second is temperature. There is no need to build a separate cooling device in areas with low temperatures. However, if mining in the city, we must consider the problem of the huge heat emitted.

三是网络。网速越快,整个挖矿流程的上链速度就越快。

The third is the network. The faster the network speed, the faster the speed of the entire mining process.

目前兼具这三大优势的地区有如俄罗斯、加拿大,以及冰岛等北欧国家。

At present, the regions with these three advantages include the Nordic countries such as Russia, Canada, and Iceland.

2)非政策因素

2) Non-policy factors一是金融和外贸政策。是否支持加密货币,或允许挖矿?是否会突然没收矿机?如果有自然灾害,是否会补贴电力损失?在税收方面是否有新的优惠?是否对中国企业有优惠或歧视政策?

First, the financial and foreign trade policies. Does it support cryptocurrency, or allow mining? Will the mining machine be confiscated? If there is a natural disaster, will it subsidize the power loss? Are there any new incentives in taxation? Are there any preferential or discriminatory policies for Chinese companies?

二是能源环保政策。在国际上如何承诺减排?目前的碳排放情况如何?是否有足够的清洁能源可以替代?若所在国环保问题较为突出,一方面必须限制高能耗活动以抚天下,另一方面又需要高昂成本购入碳排放权,入不敷出,加密货币矿场必然沦为众矢之的。

The second is the energy and environmental protection policy. How to reduce the emissions internationally? What is the current carbon emission situation? Is there enough clean energy to replace? If the country's environmental protection issues are more prominent, the high energy consumption activities must be restricted, and on the other hand, carbon emission rights must be purchased at a high cost. If you cannot make ends meet, cryptocurrency mines will inevitably become targets of criticism.

无论如何,回过头来看,比特币算力以及围绕其构建的基础设施已加速向海外转移,比特币算力的去中国化进程已然开启。

In any case, Bitcoin's computing power and its infrastructure are expanding to overseas and gradually leaving China.

Cloudrush作为一家美国大型科技公司,为区块链行业提供算力服务和公链打造等一站式解决方案,现已和美国第二大数据中心Cyxtera达成战略合作,无论体量大小,均可将设备托管于Cyxtera,享受完善的安保系统、双路供电、双环不间断空调系统、实时监控、7*24小时运维等服务,迎接中国矿工入住Cyxtera。

As a large American technology company, Cloudrush provides one-stop solutions for the blockchain industry such as computing power services and blockchain creation. It has reached a strategic cooperation with Cyxtera, the second largest data center in the United States. The equipment can be hosted in Cyxtera regardless the size, enjoying a complete security system, dual-circuit power supply, dual-loop uninterrupted air-conditioning system, real-time monitoring, 7/24 operation and maintenance, etc., to welcome Chinese miners moving into Cyxtera.

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