▪️ Past Perfect simple tense (uzoq o'tgan zamon) - o'tgan zamondagi biror voqea yoki paytdan oldin bo'lib o'tgan ish-harakatlarni bildirish uchun qo'llaniladi, shuning uchun ham mazkur zamonni uzoq o'tgan zamon deb atashsa kerak.
▪️ Masalan, siz kecha ziyofatga bordingiz, lekin u yerda yaqin do'stingiz Sobirni ko'rmadingiz, chunki u siz kelguncha uyiga ketib bo'lgan ekan.
▪️ Ingliz tilida ayni shunday holatlar uchun, ya'ni "Sobir uyiga ketib bo'lgan ekan" degan ma'noni berish uchun Past Perfect simple tense qo'llaniladi. Mazkur gap ingliz tilida qanday bo'lishini ko'ramiz. 🔸When I arrived (o'tgan zamondagi ish-harakat) at the party, I didn't meet Sobir there because he had already gone home.
▪️ Bu zamonda egadan keyin had yordamchi fe'li + tog'ri fe'llarga -ed yoki noto'g'ri fe'llarning past participle (verb III) shaklidagi asosiy fe'l qo'llaniladi.
▪️ Positive form: 🔸I had eaten/ worked. 🔸He/she/it had eaten/ worked. 🔸We/you/they had eaten/worked.
▪️ Negative form: 🔸I had not eaten/ worked. 🔸He/she/it had not eaten/ worked 🔸We/you/they had not eaten/worked.
▪️ Question form: 🔸Had I eaten/ worked? 🔸Had he/she/it eaten/ worked? 🔸Had we/you/they eaten/worked?
▪️ Misollar: 🔸 When Tom came, the workers had already finished the work. (Tom kelganida, ishchilar allaqachon ishni tugatishgan edi) 🔸Sobir had done the homework by 6 o'clock yesterday. (Sobir kecha soat 6 gacha uy vazifasini bajarib bo'lgan edi)
Past perfect simple tense qo'llanish holatlari
1️⃣ Uzoq o'tgan zamon odatda yo'lg'iz o'zi emas, boshqa o'tgan zamondagi (past simple) ish-harakat bilan ko'p qo'llaniladi. Bunda uzoq o'tgan zamonda ifodalangan ish-harakat o'tgan zamondagi ish-harakatdan oldin bo'lib o'tganligi ko'rsatiladi. 🔸Tom had already gone home when I arrived at the party. (Men ziyofatga kelganimda (o'tgan zamon), Tom allaqachon uyiga ketgan ekan (uzoq o'tgan zamon).
2️⃣ Uzoq o'tgan zamon as soon as/after/before/by the time/when/until bog'lovchilari bilan ham qo'llaniladi. 🔸After we had found a place to stay we went to a restaurant. (Yashashga joy topganimizdan keyin biz restarantga yo'l oldik) 🔸Tom had washed his car before we set off a journey. 🔸The film had already started by the time we got to the cinema. 🔸As soon as he had finished his homework, he was allowed to watch TV. 🔸We had packed all the necessary things by the time Tom came.
💡when bog'lovchisi o'tgan zamondagi fe'l bilan ham qo'llanishini avvalgi mavzularda ko'rib o'tgan edik. Uzoq o'tgan zamonda qo'llanilganda esa when after (keyin) bo'g'lovchi ma'nosida qo'llaniladi. 🔸When (After) I had repaired the car, we could continue our trip.
4️⃣ Ingliz tilida inkor ma'noli ravishlar - hardly/barely/scarcely (deyarli yo'q, zo'rg'a) - uzoq o'tgan zamonda juda ko'p qo'llaniladi. 🔸I had barely heard of him until that day. (U haqda men o'sha kungacha deyarli hech narsa bilmasdim.)
4️⃣ Uzoq o'tgan zamon (past perfect simple) hozirgi tugallangan zamon (present perfect simple) ning o'tgan zamon shakli sifatida qo'llaniladi, ya'ni o'tgan zamonda natijasi ayon bo'lgan ish-harakatni bildiradi. Qiyoslang: 🔸My car is clean. I have washed it. (Hozirda natijasi ayon bo'lgan ish-harakat) 🔸My car was clean. I had washed it. (O'tgan zamonda natijasi ayon bo'lgan ish-harakat)
💡Mazkur holatda Past perfect simpleda Present perfect simpleda ishlatiladigan payt ravishlari ham (already, just, ever, never, yet va h.k.) ishlatiladi.
Muallif: Khamdambek Atajanov
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