下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- Guinea-Bissau，文章讲述几内亚比绍共和国是非洲西海岸的一个国家，国土面积为36125千平方公里，其中包括28000平方公里的土地和81200平方公里的海洋。该国人口超过154万，人口密度为每平方米42人。几内亚比绍是前葡萄牙殖民地。长期的掠夺和殖民统治使该国的工业基础非常薄弱，矿产资源尚未得到开发。
Republic of Guinea-Bissau is a country in the west coast of Africa with the national territory area of 36.125 thousand square kilometers, including 28 thousand square kilometers of land and 8.12 thousand square kilometers of ocean. The country has a population of more than 1.54 million and the density of population is 42 persons per square meter. Guinea-Bissau is a former Portuguese colony. The long period of depredations and colonization left the country a very weak foundation of industry, and the mineral resources have not yet been explored. The economy in the country is dominated by agriculture, upon which more than 80 percent of the population depends. The total area of land suitable for farming is 900 thousand hectares, of which only 29 percent is utilized. Besides, the fishery resources in Guinea-Bissau are fairly rich. Sending fishing permits and the export of fish and other seafood are the main sources of Foreign exchange earnings. In the year of 1981, Guinea-Bissau was listed as one of the least developed countries by the United Nations.
Key Words: Guinea-Bissau; economy; analysis
Ⅰ. Introduction 3
Ⅱ. History and Geography 3
A. Historical Characteristics 4
B. Geographical Conditions 4
Ⅲ. Economy of Guinea-Bissau 5
A. Weakness of Industry 6
B. Domination of Agriculture 7
C. External Economic Relation 8
Ⅳ. Prospects and Direction of Development 9
A. Challenges and Opportunities 9
B. Tourism-A New Industry 10
Ⅴ. Conclusion 11
Analysis of Economic Development of Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau is an agricultural country with a very weak foundation of industry. It is one of the least developed countries published by the United Nations. According to the statistics announced by the World Bank, Guinea-Bissau is listed the sixteenth of the least developed countries.
Guinea-Bissau is a former Portuguese colony. In the year of 1973, Guinea-Bissau declared independence. At the beginning period of its independence, there were only a dozen small-sized processing factories over the country. Because of a continuing war during that time, food shortage was extreme serious and could not be self-sufficient and the growth rate of real per capita output was only 110 dollars (White 12).
With great difficulty and challenge, the government of Guinea-Bissau is trying to find a way to develop the economy of the country. However, there are many factors lying in the way of its development, and the way forward also seems to be harsh and difficult. Meanwhile, there is also opportunity hidden behind the challenges.
II. History and Geography of Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau is a tropical country located in the west coast of Western Europe. The territory of this country is mainly on the main land, with a long winding coastal line. Guinea-Bissau experienced a long time of fighting for national independence. Being a former colonial country of Portage, the people of the country fought a long way to build their own nation. Finally in the year of 1973, Guinea-Bissau ushered her day of independence.
A. Historical Characteristics
Guinea-Bissau, like other countries of Africa, was not an independent country from ancient time till the fifteenth century. In the year of 1446, Portuguese colonists invaded the land, which stirred the local people to continuous resistance.
In 1908, a large uprising, which lasted for an amazing nine years, was exploded in the country. Following that, a serious of smaller uprisings were continuously started in the year of 1920, 1932 and 1939. Till the twentieth century, the resistance experienced a new progress.
In November of 1973, the first National People’s Parliament was opened and the Republic of Guinea-Bissau was formally declared independence. Soon after its independence, Guinea-Bissau accepted the admission from more than eighty countries and organizations, including the United Nations. In the beginning period of its foundation, the industrial development was faced with a harsh circumstance with only a few factories over the country due to the destruction of years of wars. What was even worse was that the food could not be self-sufficient. The government paid great efforts in rebuilding the nation, and restored its economy to some extend. However, Guinea-Bissau still had a long way to go before getting rid of extreme poverty.
B. Geographical Conditions
Guinea-Bissau has a typical subordinate savanna climate. The country is in the season of summer throughout the year. The temperature of the mainland is rather high all the year round, with the average environment temperature reaching 27 degrees centigrade. In normal years, the rainfall of the north area is around 1500 millimeters, and that of the coastal area of the south is up to 3000 millimeters, which is far more than the mainland. With the influence of the Sahara Dessert, the evaporation is increasing and surpassing the rainfall, causing serious drought in this country. The tropical soil “are easily leached” (Bohannan 172), adding difficulty to agriculture.
Guinea-Bissau is rich in natural a variety of resources. What is more, there is abundant petroleum in coastal area. However, it is a pity that such bounty of the resources in the country is not fully utilized.
It is worth mentioning that the forestry resource in Guinea-Bissau is so rich that about 56 percent of the land there is covered by forest. The reservoir of wood is nearly 50 million cubit meters, the deforestation of which is about 55 thousand cubic meters per year (Snoek 2004). The wood, which is also in good quality, becomes one of the most important exports in Guinea-Bissau.
As a coastal country with a long coastal line, Guinea-Bissau has rich fishery resources. According to relevant research, the annual overall harvest reaches 250 thousand to 350 thousand tons. Because of there are no domestic large fishing ships within the country, the government gives away permits to foreigners as a main resource of foreign currency. Besides, seafood export is also a major channel through which people in Guinea-Bissau get foreign exchange.
III. Economy of Guinea-Bissau
“West Africa was in the news during the months of March and April as coups pushed the region to the brink of chaos” (Mutambo 2012). In the mid to late 1990s to now, the economic development in Guinea-Bissau experienced an unstable process. The reason that caused this problem is that the political situation in that period is turbulent, which directly restricted the development of domestic economy, especially during the years of coup. In a rather long period after the independence, the state leaders stepped on a wrong way of economic construction. Ignoring the weak foundation the lack of technology and talented managers, the government took extreme reform measures, which even worsened the economic conditions.
A. Weakness of Industry
The industrial in Guinea-Bissau, whose base is feeble, mainly depends on agricultural products and food processing. The processing industry shares 75 percent of the total industrial output. After independence from Portugal, the government paid great attention to attracting foreign capital and set up some joint factories with other countries like Portugal, such as juice factories, car assembly plants, beer factories and so on. However, these factories all finished up in failure one after another as a result of poor management. During the time of the industrial development, several civil wars were broken out, the country “was destroyed and hundreds of thousands fled into the countryside”(Massey 2012), which deeply destroyed the newly developing industries.