Immunosomes are used to measure the concentration of small molecules such as lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, etc. in solutions using immuno-antibody reactions. It is used to detect several infectious disorders such as dengue, hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The increasing incidence of infectious diseases such as HIV is the primary global public health issue.
Immunoassays are used to determine the amount of molecules of biological interest based on the specificity and selectivity of the generated biological antibody. In HTS and lead optimization projects, molecules are designed to detect molecules that are intracellular or secreted in response to the compounds investigated. This chapter describes the fundamentals of designing and implementing robust, automation-friendly immunoassays for HTS, immunoassay formats (competitive and sandwich), instrumentation, reagent selection, experimental design, and detailed data analysis concepts. The importance of a suitable curve-fitting model for the calibration curves used for quantization has also been addressed in detail. It is an excellent primer for beginners as well as experienced investigators.
Top Companies Working in this study
Ø F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.
Ø bioMérieux SA
Ø Danaher Corporation
Ø Ortho Clinical Diagnostics
Ø Sysmex Corporation
Ø Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc
Ø Quidel Corporation
In 2018, the World Health Organization (WHO) claimed that more than 32 million HIV people are diagnosed, of which 770,000 died. At the end of 2018, approximately 1.7 million people were reported to be newly infected globally, comprising 62% of adults and 54% of children. According to the HIV and AIDS Organization (AVERT), in 2018, 1.1 million US residents were infected with HIV, while APAC recorded 5.2 million HIV-infected populations. According to the European CDC, in 2018, ~ 2 million people in Europe were infected with HIV.
Immunoassay is an accurate biosynthesis method that measures the presence of an analysis extending from small molecules to macromolecules in a solution with the use of an antibody or antigen as a biorecognition agent. This method has been investigated by various market players to accomplish exceptional precision by extensive discovery in product design and innovations. Some recent technological developments have marked the development of immunosass technique over the years. New technologies or products are being refined and improved to provide more comfortable to use instruments with incremental improvements in analytical performance.
Immunosases are bioanalytical methods in which the amount of enolate depends on the response of an antigen (analysis) and an antibody. Immunoassays have been widely used in many important areas of drug analysis such as diagnosis of diseases, therapeutic drug monitoring, drug discovery and clinical pharmacokinetic and biodiversity studies in pharmaceutical industries. The importance and prevalence of immunoassay methods in pharmaceutical analysis is attributed to analysis in biological samples for their inherent specificity, high-throughput and high sensitivity.
Recently, marked improvements in the field of immunoassay development were obtained for the purposes of pharmaceutical analysis. These improvements included the preparation of unique immunoanalytical reagents, analysis of new categories of compounds, methodology, and equipment. The basic methods and recent advances in immunoassay methods applied in various fields of pharmaceutical analysis have been reviewed.