November 26, 2020

नीतिमाला नारायणर्यविरचिता — «NITIMALA» by Narayanarya — English synopsis and Sanskrit text [R. Ramanujachari and K. Srinivasacharya — 1940 edition]

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Annotation by Vishnudut1926: Excellent edition of «Nitimala» by Narayanarya. It consists of 2 parts:

A. The English synopsis of key ideas from «Nitimala».

B. The original text in Sanskrit.

The following is said in the Foreword:

«This work is now critically edited for the first time. The author — Sri Narayanarya — is a high authority on VisistAdvaita, who flourished before Sri Vedanta-Desika, about the end of the twelfth or the beginning of the thirteenth century AD.

Among the treatises on VisistAdvaita philosophy now extant, ‘Nitimala’ holds an honoured place. Its reputed author, Narayanarya, was a bold and original thinker. Vedanta Desika holds him in high esteem, and frequently quotes him in support of his own views.

‘Nitimala’ is written in a simple prose interspersed with verses. The ease with which Narayanarya handles philosophic arguments and the purity of his style are commendable.

‘Nitimala’ contains a brief, but exceedingly lucid exposition of the essentials of VisistAdvaita philosophy. It is divided into 10 chapters.

01. The first chapter devoted to showing that the aspirant for Brahma-Vidya should have previously studied the Karma-Mimamsa.

02. In the second chapter, Narayanarya refutes the Mimamsa doctrine that the Veda has action for its ultimate significance and the Nyaya view that the existence of God can be proved by reason and also shows that the Upanishads are not the complements of ritualistic injunctions, but have independent logical validity as statements of what exists as a fact (Brahman).

03. In the third chapter Narayanarya subjects to critical examination the Advaitic doctrine that the world is only a phenomenal appearance of Brahman.

04-05. Brahma-parinama-vada as expounded by Bhaskara and Yadavaprakasa comes in for criticism in the fourth and fifth chapters.

06-07. The next chapter inquires into the nature of Brahman, and is followed by a discussion of the nature of the finite soul in the seventh chapter.

08. The precise significance of vidhi is explained in the following chapter.

09. The ninth chapter considers the significance of Jnana, which is admitted by all Vedantins to be the means for attaining Moksha.

10. An inquiry into the ultimate goal of life (Moksha) is the subject of the last chapter».