Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.Biochemical processes give rise to the complexity of life.
Biochemistry analyzers are new-generation analyzers that are used by hospitals, diagnostic centers, pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies, and contract research organizations to perform various tasks such as routine biochemistry tests, electrolytic tests, hormonal assays, drug-enzyme investigations among others. These analyzers are gaining significant popularity in the market as it is capable of performing multi-functional applications with reliable results. These analyzers are available in the market with various levels of automation.
Two of the main functions of carbohydrates are energy storage and providing structure. One of the common sugars known as glucose is carbohydrate, but not all carbohydrates are sugars. There are more carbohydrates on Earth than any other known type of biomolecule; they are used to store energy and genetic information, as well as play important roles in cell to cell interactions and communications.
Biochemistry is closely related to molecular biology, the study of the molecular mechanisms of biological phenomena.
Lipids comprise a diverse range of molecules and to some extent is a catchall for relatively water-insoluble or nonpolar compounds of biological origin, including waxes, fatty acids, fatty-acid derived phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids, and terpenoids (e.g., retinoids and steroids). Some lipids are linear, open-chain aliphatic molecules, while others have ring structures. Some are aromatic (with a cyclic [ring] and planar [flat] structure) while others are not. Some are flexible, while others are rigid.
Proteins are very large molecules—macro-biopolymers—made from monomers called amino acids. An amino acid consists of an alpha carbon atom attached to an amino group, –NH2, a carboxylic acid group, –COOH (although these exist as –NH3+ and –COO− under physiologic conditions), a simple hydrogen atom, and a side chain commonly denoted as "–R". The side chain "R" is different for each amino acid of which there are 20 standard ones. It is this "R" group that made each amino acid different, and the properties of the side-chains greatly influence the overall three-dimensional conformation of a protein.
Nucleic acids, so-called because of their prevalence in cellular nuclei, is the generic name of the family of biopolymers. They are complex, high-molecular-weight biochemical macromolecules that can convey genetic information in all living cells and viruses. The monomers are called nucleotides, and each consists of three components: a nitrogenous heterocyclic base (either a purine or a pyrimidine), a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group.
The most common nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). The phosphate group and the sugar of each nucleotide bond with each other to form the backbone of the nucleic acid, while the sequence of nitrogenous bases stores the information. The most common nitrogenous bases are adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and uracil. The nitrogenous bases of each strand of a nucleic acid will form hydrogen bonds with certain other nitrogenous bases in a complementary strand of nucleic acid (similar to a zipper).